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Notes on PBLPMES Stable Boundary Layer Meeting
10 May 2011, FMI
LR/10.5.2011
Present: Sergei Zilitinkevich, Niels Woetman Nielsen (DMI), Carl Fortelius, Evgeny Kadantsev, Irene Suomi, Laura Rontu, Timo Vihma
1. Niels told about his preliminary study on implementation results from Zilitinkevich and Esau (2007: BoundaryLayer Meteorol. 125, 193205) for calculation of the nearsurface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and moisture in HIRLAM (DMI Scientific Report 1001). Sergei commented that formulations of Z&E (2007) were factually not ready for application in NWP due to problems related to the crossisobaric angle and the iteration method for the boundary layer height.
2. Presently, a new formulation of the boundary layer height, based on external parameters instead of the surface fluxes, has been derived. The PBL height, h, is now determined through the freeflow mean wind velocity, U, and BruntVisl frequency, N, and the increment in potential temperature, EMBED Equation.3 , in the lower part of the boundary layer: EMBED Equation.3 , where EMBED Equation.3 = EMBED Equation.3 and EMBED Equation.3 EMBED Equation.3 is the aerodynamic surface temperature. A new paper (by Zilitinkevich and Esau) presenting the method is being prepared.
Evgeny is expected to make a code solving prognostic PBL height equations (applicable to any stratification regimes) and to compare resulting PBL heights with observations (in particular from the Helsinki Testbed data base).
Application for calculation of the nearsurface turbulent fluxes in the HARMONIE framework will follow.
Conclusions and recommendations:
Niels will continue developing his earlier formulations, starting in the framework of SURFEX and its so called canopy scheme, which provides additional levels with equations including parameterized turbulence inside the nearsurface layer. Niels will study the related documents; Laura will help in setting up the standalone SURFEX, using the easy setup that is being prepared for the MUSCATEN summer school.
Sergej will attempt to derive formulation of the crossisobaric angle for longlived stable PBLs through external parameters.
In case of success, Niels will proceed with further development of the surfaceflux algorithm applicable to very shallow (longlived stable) PBLs based on Zilitinkevich and Esau (2007) plus new (externalparameter) PBLheight equation.
Evgeny will study SURFEX and the canopy scheme, especially to compare the evolution of wind, temperature, humidity and turbulent flux profiles inside the surface layer with the corresponding bulk values resulting from application of stabilitydependent roughness over the entire surface layer.
Svyatoslav Tyuryakov in collaboration with Vladimir Dulov, Marine Hydrophysical Institute = MHI, Sevastopol, Ukraine has prepared experimental data on airsea interaction at different wind speeds and wave fields for comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the seasurface roughness lengths for momentum and scalars (this work will be carried out in collaboration with the newly launched RussianUkrainian project Black Sea involving in particular INM and MHI).
3. Sergei reported that recent LES of stratified air flows within and above urban canopy carried out by Andrey Glazunov ( HYPERLINK "mailto:glazunov@inm.ras.ru" glazunov@inm.ras.ru, Institute of Numerical Mathematics =INM, Moscow) as well as windtunnel experiments by Susumu Kurita (Japan) have confirmed essential stability dependences of the momentum roughness length, EMBED Equation.3 , and displacement height, EMBED Equation.3 , in stable stratification (as obtained by Zilitinkevich et al., 2008: BoundaryLayer Meteorol. 129, 179190). At the same time both LES and lab experiments demonstrated that essential decrease in EMBED Equation.3 with increasing stability only weakly effect the drag coefficient, EMBED Equation.3 (where EMBED Equation.3 is the friction velocity and EMBED Equation.3 is the wind velocity at the lowest model level), because of essential mutual compensation of the changes in the wind profile caused by decreasing EMBED Equation.3 and widening the linear portion and swallowing the logarithmic portion in the generally loglinear wind velocity profile. Independently Carl Fortelius has come to similar conclusions from numerical experimentation with the stabilitydependent EMBED Equation.3 (after Zilitinkevich et al., 2008) implemented in 1D and 3D version of HIRLAM.
Conclusions and recommendations:
Stability dependence of the roughness length (although quite pronounced) practically does not affect the drag coefficient and therefore the largescale air flow, Therefore it can be neglected in largescale models (Carl Fortelius, 2011).
However, stability dependences of the roughness length and displacement height should be taken into account to realistically determining the vertical wind profile within and above urban canopy, especially in stable stratification. Rather common opinion that the effect of urban heat island (UHI) eliminates stable stratification in urban PBLs is not quite correct. According to JCR Hunt (private communication, 1 May 2011), UHI over the central part of London causes nocturnal breeze (from surrounding rural area towards the centre) and the essentially stable stratification in the urban area already 3 km away from the very centre.
It follows that an advanced windprofile model, including stability dependent EMBED Equation.3 and EMBED Equation.3 together with the usual loglinear wind profile, could be of use as a start point (and upper boundary condition) for development of a stability dependent urbancanopy windprofile (Sergej will contact Andrey Glazunov, Igor Esau and Alexander Baklanov concerning this prospect).
4. Other ongoing activities:
Our longterm collaboration with BenGurion University of the Negev, Israel (key persons: Tov Elperin, Nathan Kleeorin and Igor Rogachevskii) has yielded a comparatively simple turbulence closure model realistically reproducing stability dependences for all available second moments (a new paper is to be submitted to BLM before summer holidays).
Prior results from PBLPMES have been essentially used in recently completed Italian (ENEA) national project Environmental Management in the Termoli Coastal Industrial Area and widely acknowledged in the project volume: Research on Environmental Management in a Coastal Industrial Area: New Indicators and Tools for Air Quality and River Investigations (edited by M.C. Mammarella, G. Grandoni and P. Fedele), Armando, Rome, 1911, 180 pp. (ISBN: 9788860818997).
Sergej has been collaborating with Russian State Hydrometeorological University = RSHU (St. Petersburg), Institute of Atmospheric Physics = IPhARAS (Moscow) and Institute of Applied Physics = IAPRAS (Nizhniy Novgorod) etc., as well as Ukrainian MHI (Sevastopol) in theoretical and experimental studies of the effect of sea spray and foam of the surface drag (in storm). Valuable contributions (acknowledging PBLPMES) are already done by Irina Repina (IPhARAS) and Vladimir Kudryavtsev (RSHU).
4. Coming events:
Valery Masson will visit Helsinki during 1416 June 2011 to discuss cooperation within and beyond the SURFEX framework. Seminar and meetings will be arranged.
MUSCATEN summer school in Odessa 39.7.2011 will offer a possibility to further discuss current progress in PBL modelling and parameterization. It is desirable to use this opportunity for personal meetings with Vladimir Dulov and other colleagues from MHI.
PAGE
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