HIRLAM documentation


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HIRLAM Documentation system 2.5 June 1996 HIRLAM Documentation system 2.5 June 1996

Date added: 10/02/2014
Date modified: 10/03/2014
Filesize: 43.94 MB
Downloads: 15900

Author: E. Kallen


Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 The Forecast Model

2.1 Adiabatic Formulation

2.1.1 The Continuous Equation

2.1.2 Finite difference scheme

2.1.3 The semi-implicit time scheme

2.1.4 Horizontal diffusion

2.1.5 Boundary relaxation scheme

2.1.6 Statistics

2.1.7 Extra Scalars

2.1.8 The semi-Lagrangian time scheme

2.2 Physical parameterization

2.2.1 Radiation

2.2.2 Vertical diffusion

2.2.2 A Theory and general procedure

2.2.2 B Diffusion coefficients

2.2.2 C Additional computations at the ground

2.2.2 D Transfer of information

2.2.3 Condensation and precipitation

2.2.3 A General

2.2.3 B Convective release of latent heat and associated cloud cover

2.2.3 C Stratiform condensation

2.2.3 D Parameterization of microphysical processes

2.2.3 E Numerical treatment of the governing equations

2.2.5 Soil Processes

2.2.6 Diagnostic calculation of near surface parameters

2.3 Dynamic part

2.3.1 Algorithm and calling tree for the dynamics

2.3.2 Physical parameterization

2.4 Data organization

Chapter 3 Initialization

3.1 The implicit normal mode initialization scheme

3.1.1 Introduction

3.1.2 Linear equation system

3.1.3 Implicit NMI scheme

3.2 Computer code organization

3.3 Data organization

3.3.1 Table: The input namelists namrun for initialization

Chapter 4 The Analysis system

4.1 Analysis of wind, mass and humidity fields

4.1.1 The ECMWF analysis scheme and HIRLAM modifications - an introduction

4.1.2 Adaptations to the limited area version

4.1.3 Adaptations to the HIRLAM file structure

4.1.4 Setting of file unit numbers

4.1.6 Adaptations to water vapour saturations pressure calculations

4.1.7 The script Prepob

4.1.8 De-staggering of wind components of the first guess and staggering of wind components of analysis increments

4.1.9 Creation of HIRLAM analysis coefficient files

4.2 Analysis of sea surface temperature and ice coverage

4.2.1 General features

4.2.2 Input of sea-surface temperature and ice coverage data from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute

4.2.3 Method of computations

4.2.4 Computer code organization

4.2.5 Data organization

Chapter 5 Data structures

5.1. Fields

5.1.1 General

5.1.2 Definition of mandatory descriptor record (DDR)

5.1.3 GRIB format

5.1.4 Programs for packing and unpacking

5.1.5 Indicator of parameter

5.2 Data Structures - Observations (BUFR)

5.2.2 BUFR decoding; Porgram Library BUFR

5.2.3 BUFR Tables

5.2.4 Script Make BUFRtabs

5.2.5 Program BUTA

5.3 Statistics files

5.3.1 General features of the statistics files

5.3.2 Structure and contents

5.3.3 Transmission of statistics files

5.3.4 Contents of the statistics files

5.3.5 FORTRAN formats for records in the statistics files

Chapter 6 Pre-processing

6.1 Horizontal interpolation

6.1.1 Selection of boundary files

6.1.2 File format transformation

6.1.3 Horizontal interpolation

6.1.4 Bitmaps

6.2 Vertical interpolation from presssure levels to HIRLAM hybrid levels

6.2.1 Notations

6.2.2 Calculation of surface pressure

6.2.3 Vertical interpolations

6.2.4 Program organization and data organization

6.3 Vericatl interpolation from one hybrid level system to another hybrid level system

6.3.1 Notations

6.3.2 Estimation of a proliminary HIRLAM surface pressure

6.3.3 Vertical interpolation of temperature, humidity and wind components

6.3.4 Computation of the final HIRLAM surface pressure

6.3.6 Program organization and data organization

Chapter 7 Post-processing

7.1 Vertical interpolation and extrapolation

7.2 Mean sea level pressure

7.3 Time Series Files

7.3.1 Generating Time Series Files Initialising - INITRF Copy data to Time Sseries buffer - CPDTRF Writing the Time Series File - WRITRF

7.3.2 Reading Time Series Files Get informatino on Time Series File - GINFSF Reading Single Level Time Series - RDSESF Reading Multi Level Time Series - RDMETF/RAMETF

7.4 Vertical velocity

7.5 Relative humidity

7.6 Surface fluxes

7.7 Computer code organization and namelist parameters

Chapter 8 The surface orography and climate system

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Orography, surface roughness and fraction of land

8.3 Surface climate fields

8.4 HIRLAM climate data files

Chapter 9 General verification against observations

Chapter 10 The HIRLAM system under UNIX, a unified script system








Stefan Gollvik and Patrick Samuelsson: A tiled land-surface scheme for HIRLAM Stefan Gollvik and Patrick Samuelsson: A tiled land-surface scheme for HIRLAM

Date added: 05/24/2011
Date modified: 05/24/2011
Filesize: 1.43 MB
Downloads: 24388


This report describes the surface scheme, developed for HIRLAM, and called ”newsnow” during
the development time. It is physically based on the land surface scheme used at the Rossby Centre
(Samuelsson et al., 2006), with some exceptions. The code structure and data assimilation has its
origin in the earlier HIRLAM surface scheme (Rodriguez et al., 2003).
It is a tiled scheme with 7 tiles: Sea, ice, bare soil, low vegetation, forest, snowcovered bare soil and
low vegetation, and finally forest with snow on the forest floor. The basic difference from the earlier
scheme is the introduction of the snow scheme, and a completely new forest formulation. The other
tiles are in principle the same as the old scheme, but we have replaced the force-restore formulation
within the soil, with more layers and heat conduction.
Thus we have two different snow packs, with separate energy balances. For each tile we compute the
latent and sensible heat fluxes and momentum fluxes, and they are weighted together, according to
their grid fractions, to provide a lower boundary condition for the vertical diffusion. The forest has a
separate canopy temperature, common for the tiles with and without snow on the forest floor, so they
are treated together within the scheme. At present no snow on sea ice is incorporated, but we have
one temperature for the uppermost ice layer and the snow.
The water storages treated in the model are, except for soil moisture, intercepted water on low vegetation
and on the forest, snow water equivalent on the ground and forest floor. The snow packs also
treat liquid water within the snow, which can refreeze. We also treat intercepted snow on the forest
canopy, in a simplified way, without a separate temperature.
The main differences from the climate model of the Rossby Centre, is that we have three thermal
layers in the soil and a relaxation to a deep climatological temperature instead of a no flux lower
boundary condition , and that we have kept the force-restore formulation of soil moisture from the
earlier HIRLAM scheme.
We have also a simpler estimation of the snow fraction. The deviations from the climate version, has
mainly to do with the adaptation to the surface data assimilation.

Elimination_of_extension_zone Elimination_of_extension_zone

Date added: 02/01/2011
Date modified: 02/01/2011
Filesize: 55.31 kB
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HIRLAM Newsletter No.49 Article02 Yang HIRLAM Newsletter No.49 Article02 Yang

Date added: 04/24/2009
Date modified: 08/25/2009
Filesize: 2.57 MB
Downloads: 18723
Background blending using an incremental spatial filter, Xiaohua Yang, DMI,

Dmitrii V. Mironov, 2008 Dmitrii V. Mironov, 2008

Date added: 04/24/2009
Date modified: 03/30/2010
Filesize: 541.29 kB
Downloads: 20495

Mironov, D. V., 2008: Parameterization of lakes in numerical weather prediction. Description of a lake model. COSMO Technical Report, No. 11, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach am Main, Germany, 41 pp.

For more information see Lake model website