HIRLAM Chemical branch and Enviro-HIRLAM

Enviro-HIRLAM coupled chemistry-meteorology modeling system, Denmark and HIRLAM countries

Enviro-HIRLAM is developed as a fully online integrated NWP and CTM system for research and forecasting of meteorological, chemical and biological weather. The integrated modelling system is developed by DMI and other collaborators (Chenevez et al., 2004; Baklanov et al., 2008a, 2011b; Korsholm et al., 2008, 2009; Korsholm, 2009) and included as the baseline system of the Chemical Branch of the HIRLAM consortium. The model development was initiated at DMI more than a decade ago and is used now in several countries. The first version of Enviro-HIRLAM was based on the DMI-HIRLAM NWP model with online integrated pollutant transport and dispersion (Chenevez et al., 2004), chemistry, deposition and indirect effects (Korsholm, 2009) and later aerosol dynamics (Baklanov, 2003; Gross and Baklanov, 2004). To make the model suitable for chemical weather forecasting in urban areas the meteorological part was improved by implementation of urban sub-layer parametrizations (Baklanov et al., 2008b). The model’s dynamic core was improved by adding a locally mass conserving semi-Lagrangian numerical advection scheme (Kaas, 2008; Sørensen, 2012), which improves forecast accuracy and enables performing longer runs. The current version of Enviro-HIRLAM (Nuterman et al., 2013) is based on the reference HIRLAM version 7.2 with a more sophisticated and effective chemistry scheme, multi-compound modal approach aerosol dynamics modules, aerosol feedbacks on radiation (direct and semi-direct effects) and on cloud microphysics (first and second indirect effects). This version is still under development and needs further validation.

The modelling system is being used for operational pollen forecasting in Denmark since 2009 and for different research studies since 2004. Following the main strategic development within HIRLAM (HIRLAM-B,C projects), further developments of Enviro-HIRLAM will shift to the new HARMONIE NWP platform incorporating the Enviro-HIRLAM chemistry modules and aerosol–radiation–cloud interactions into the future HARMONIE integrated system (Baklanov, 2008; Baklanov et al., 2011a).

Code and/or data availability:
The Enviro-HIRLAM modelling system is a community model, the source code is available for non-commercial use (research, development, and science education) upon agreement through contact to Bent Hansen Sass ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ) and Roman Nuterman ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ). 

Web-links to education materials:
Documentation, educational materials and exercises are available from http://hirlam.org and YSSS training schools:
1st International Young Scientist Summer School (YSSS) on “Integrated Modelling of Meteorological and Chemical Transport Processes” (based on Enviro-HIRLAM) in St. Petersburg, Russia: http://netfam.fmi.fi/YSSS08/
2nd International YSSS (based on Enviro-HIRLAM/HARMONIE) in Odessa, Ukraine: http://www.ysss.osenu.org.ua/
3rd International YSSS (based on 5 online coupled models including Enviro-HIRLAM/HARMONIE) in Aveiro, Portugal: http://aveirosummerschool2014.web.ua.pt/

Baklanov, A.: Modelling of formation and dynamics of radioactive aerosols in the atmosphere, in: Research on a Theory of Elementary Particles and Solid State, 4, 135–148, 2003.
Baklanov, A.: Integrated meteorological and atmospheric chemical transport modelling: perspectives and strategy for HIRLAM/HARMONIE, HIRLAM  Newsletter, 53, 68–78, 2008.
Baklanov,A.:Chemical weather forecasting:a new concept of integrated modelling, Adv.  Sci.Res., 4, 23–27,doi:10.5194/asr-4-23-2010,2010.
Baklanov,A.andKorsholm,U.:Online Integrated Meteorological and Chemical Transport Modelling:  Advantages and Prospectives, in: Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XIX, edited by Borrego, C. and Miranda, A.I., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht,3–17, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-8453-9_1 , 2008.
Baklanov, A. and Nuterman, R.: Multi-scale atmospheric environment modelling for urban areas. Advances in Science and Research, 3, 53-57, 2009.
Baklanov,A.and Sørensen, J.:Parameter is a tionofradion uclide deposition in atmospheric long-range transport modelling, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere, 26, 787799, doi:10.1016/S1464-1909(01)00087-9, 2001.
Baklanov, A.,Mahura,  A.,Nielsen, N.,a nd Petersen, C.: Approaches for urbanization of DMI-HIRLAM NWP model, HIRLAM Newsletter,49, 61–75, December 2005.
Baklanov, A.,Korsholm, U.,Mahura, A., Petersen, C., and Gross, A.: ENVIRO-HIRLAM: online coupled modelling of urban meteorology and air pollution ,Adv.Sci.Res.,2,41–46,doi:10.5194/asr-2-41-2008,2008a.
Baklanov, A., Mestayer, P.G., Clappier, A., Zilitinkevich, S., Joffre, S., Mahura, A., and Nielsen, N.W.: Towards improving the simulation of meteorologic alfields in urban areas through updated / advanced surface fluxes description, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 523–543, doi:10.5194/acp-8-523-2008, 2008b.
Baklanov,A., Mahura, A.,and Sokhi, R.,eds.: Integrated Systems of Meso - Meteorological and Chemical Transport Models, Springer, 242 p.,  doi:10.1007/978-3-642-13980-2_1, 2011a.
Baklanov, A., Schlünzen, K., Suppan, P., Baldasano, J., Brunner, D., Aksoyoglu, S., Carmichael, G., Douros, J., Flemming, J., Forkel, R., Galmarini, S., Gauss, M., Grell, G., Hirtl, M., Joffre, S., Jorba, O., Kaas, E., Kaasik, M., Kallos, G., Kong, X., Korsholm, U., Kurganskiy, A., Kushta, J., Lohmann, U., Mahura, A., Manders-Groot, A., Maurizi, A., Moussiopoulos, N., Rao, S. T., Savage, N., Seigneur, C., Sokhi, R.S., Solazzo, E., Solomos, S., Sørensen, B., Tsegas,  G., Vignati,  E.,Vogel, B.,and Zhang, Y.: Online coupled regional meteorology chemistry models in Europe: current status and prospects, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 317–398, doi:10.5194/acp-14-317-2014, 2014.
Baklanov, A., Bouchet, V., Vogel, B., Marécal, V., Benedetti, A., and Schlünzen, K. H.: Seamless Meteorology-Composition Models (SMCM): Challenges, gaps, needs and future directions. Chapter 12 in the WWOSC Book: Seamless Prediction of the Earth System: from Minutes to Months, G Brunet, S Jones, PM Ruti Eds., WMO-No. 1156, Geneva, 213-233, 2015.
Baklanov, A.A., Korsholm, U.S., Mahura, A.G.,Nuterman, R.B.,Sass, B.H., and Zakey, A.S.: Physic a land chemic alweather forecasting as a joint  problem:two-way interacting integrated modelling, in: American Meteorological Society 91st Annual Meeting, Paper 7.1, American Meteorological Society, Seattle, WA, USA, 2011b.
Baklanov, A., D. Brunner, G. Carmichael, J. Flemming, S. Freitas, M. Gauss, Ø. Hov, R. Mathur, K. H. Schlünzen, C. Seigneur, B. Vogel:  Key issues for seamless integrated chemistry-meteorology modeling. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Submitted - 31 January 2016, Revised - 30 October 2016 (in press), 2017.
Chenevez, J., Baklanov, A., and Sørensen, J. H.: Pollutant transport schemes integrated in a numerical weather prediction model: model description and verification results, Meteorol. appl., 11, 265–275, doi:10.1017/S1350482704001343, 2004.
González-Aparicio, I., Nuterman, R., Korsholm, U., Mahura, A., Acero, J., Hidalgo, J., and Baklanov, A.: Land-Use Database Processing Approach for Meso-Scale Urban NWP ModelInitialization, Tech. Rep. 10-02, Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, 2010.
González-Aparicio, I.,Hidalgo, J., Baklanov, A., Korsholm, U., Nuterman, R.,Mahura, A., and Santa-Coloma, O.: Urban boundary layer analysis in the complex coast alterrain of Bilbao using Enviro-HIRLAM, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 113, 511–527, doi:10.1007/s00704-012-0808-6, 2013.
González Aparicio, I., Baklanov, A., Hidalgo, J., Korsholm, U., Nuterman, R., and Mahura, A.: Impact of city expansion and increased heat fluxes scenarios on the urban boundary layer of Bilbao using Enviro-HIRLAM, Urban Climate Journal, 10, Part 5, 831845, doi:10.1016/j.uclim.2014.07.010, 2014.
Grell,G.andBaklanov,A.:Integrated modelling for forecasting weather and airquality: Acall for fully coupled approaches, Atmos. Environ., 45, 68456851, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.01.017,2011.
Gross, A.and Baklanov, A.: Modelling the influence of dimethyl sulphide on aerosol production in the marine boundary layer, Int. J. of Environment and Pollution, 22, 51–71, doi:10.1504/IJEP.2004.005492, 2004.
Kaas,E.:A simple and efficient locally mass conserving semi-Lagrangian transport scheme, Tellus A, 60, 305–320, 2008.
Klein, T., Kukkonen, J., Dahl, Å., Bossioli, E., Baklanov, A., Vik, A. F., Agnew, P., Karatzas, K. D., and Sofiev, M.: Interactions of physical, chemical, and biological weather calling for an integrated approach to assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality, Ambio, 41, 851–864, doi:10.1007/s13280-012-0288-z, 2012
Korsholm, U. S.: Integrated modeling of aerosol in direct effects, Ph. D. thesis, University of Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Institute and Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2009.
Korsholm, U.S., Baklanov, A., Gross, A., Mahura, A., Sass, B. H., and Kaas, E.: Online coupled chemical weather forecasting based on HIRLAMoverview and prospective of Enviro-HIRLAM, HIRLAM Newsletter, 54, 151–168, 2008.
Korsholm, U.S., Baklanov, A., Gross, A., and Sørensen, J.H.: On the importance of the meteorological coupling interval in dispersion modeling during ETEX-1, Atmos. Environ., 43, 48054810, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.11.017, 2009.
Korsholm,U. S., Mahura, A., Baklanov, A., and Grell, G.: Interactions between Air Quality and Meteorology/Climate: Aerosol Feedbacks, in: FP7 MEGAPOLISci. Report, edited by Baklanov, A. and Mahura, A., 1010,  31–46, 2010.
Kurganskiy, A., Mahura, A., Nuterman, R., Saarto, A., Rasmussen, A., Baklanov, A., Smyshlyaev, S., and Kaas, E. : Enviro-HIRLAM birch pollen modeling for Northern Europe, in: Report series in Aerosol Science, edited by Kulmala, M., Zilitinkevich, S., Lappalainen, H., Kyrö, E.-M., and Kontkanen, J., vol.163, 229–234, 2015.
Kurganskiy, A., Nuterman, R., Mahura, A., Kaas, E., Baklanov, A., and Sass, B.: Modelling of black and organic carbon cariability in the Northern Hemisphere, in: Geophysical Research Abstracts, vol. 18, EGU 2016-1404-1, 2016.
Mahura, A., Sattler, K., Petersen, C., Amstrup, B., and Baklanov, A.: DMI-HIRLAM Modelling with High Resolution Setup and Simulations for Areas of Denmark, DMI technical report, Tech. Rep. 05-12, Copenhagen, 2005b.
Mahura, A., Baklanov, A., Petersen, C., Sattler, K., Amstrup, B., and Nielsen, N.W.: ISBA Scheme Performance in High Resolution Modelling for Low Winds Conditions, HIRLAM Newsletter, 49, 22–35, 2006a.
Mahura, A., Baklanov, A., Rasmussen, A., Korsholm, U., and Petersen, C.: Birch pollen forecasting for Denmark, in: Abstracts of 6th Annual Meeting of European Meteorological Society (EMS), vol. 3, EMS 2006-A-00495, 3-7 Sep., Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2006b.
Mahura, A., Baklanov, A., Hoe, S., Sorensen, J.H., Petersen, C., and Sattler, K.: Evaluation of land surface scheme modifications on atmospheric transport and deposition patterns in Copenhagen metro politan area, in: Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XVIII, edited by Borrego, C. and Renner, E., vol. 6 of Developments in Environmental Science, Elsevier, 64–72, doi:10.1016/S1474-8177(07)06017-2, 2007a.
Mahura, A., Korsholm, U., Baklanov, A., and Rasmussen, A.: Elevated birch pollen episodes in Denmark: contributions from remote sources, Aerobiologia, 23, 171–179, doi:10.1007/s10453-007-9061-3, 2007b.
Mahura,A., Leroyer, S., Baklanov, A.,Mestayer, P., Korsholm, U., and Calmet, I.: Temporal and Spatial Variability of Fluxes in Urbanized Areas, in: Urban Climate and Bio climate, pp. 219–232, 2008a.
Mahura, A., Petersen, C., Baklanov, A., and Amstrup, B.: Evaluation of Building Effect Parameterization Module for Urbanized Numerical Weather Prediction Modelling, in: Urban Climate and Bioclimate, pp. 371–380, 2008b.
Mahura,A.,Petersen,C.,Baklanov,A.,Amstrup,B.,Korsholm,U.S.,andSattler,K.:VerificationofLongtermDMI-HIRLAM NWP Model Runs Using Urbanisation and Builing Effect Parameterization Modules, HIRLAM Newsletter, 53, 50–60, 2008c.
Mahura, A., Baklanov, A., and Korsholm, U.: Parameterization of the birch pollen diurnal cycle, Aerobiologia,25,203–208,doi:10.1007/s10453-009-9125-7, 2009.
Mahura, A., Korsholm, U., Baklanov, A., Petersen, C., and Rasmussen, A.: Birch Pollen: Modelling, Spatial and Temporal Variability, Elevated Episodes, Potential Source Regions, Emissions Parametrizations, and Future Research, in: Abstracts of International Conference on Environmental Observations, Modeling and Information Systems(ENVIROMIS-2010), pp. 87–88, 5-11 Jul., Tomsk, Russia, 2010a.
Mahura, A., Nuterman, R., Gonzalez-Aparicio, I., Petersen, C., and Baklanov, A.: Environmental modelling in Metropolitan Areas, DMI Sci.Report, Tech. Rep. 10-06, 2010b.
Mahura, A.,Nuterman, R.,Gonzalez-Aparicio, I., Amstrup, B., Yang, X., and Baklanov, A.: Meteorological and Chemical Urban Scale Modelling for Shanghai Metropolitan Area, in: Geophysical Research Abstracts, vol.18, EGU 2016-1394, 2016.
Mahura  A., Amstrup, B., Nuterman, R., Yang, X., Baklanov, A.: Multi-Scale Enviro-HIRLAM Forecasting of Weather and Atmospheric Composition over China and its Megacities, in: Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 19, EGU2017-9564, 2017.
Nuterman, R.,Korsholm, U., Zakey, A., Nielsen, K.P., Sørensen, B., Mahura, A.,Rasmussen, A., Mažeikis, A., Gonzalez-Aparicio, I., Morozova, E., Sass, B.H., Kaas, E., and Baklanov, A.: New developments in Enviro-HIRLAM online integrated modelling system, in: Geophysical Research Abstracts, vol.15, EGU 2013-12520-1, 2013.
Nuterman, R.,Mahura, A., Baklanov, A., Kurganskiy, A., Amstrup, B., and Kass, E.: Enviro-HIRLAM Applicability for Black Carbon Studies in Arctic, in: Geophysical Research Abstracts, vol. 17, EGU 2015-1571, 2015.
Rasmussen, A.,Mahura, A.,Baklanov, A.,andSommer, J.:The Danish Operation Pollen Forecasting System, in: Abstracts of 8th International Congresson Aerobiology "Towards a comprehensive vision", p. 179, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 21-25Aug., 2006.
Sass, B.H.: A research version of the STRACO cloudscheme, Tech.Rep.02-10, Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, 2002.
Sokhi, R., Baklanov, A., Schluenzen, H., eds.: Air Pollution and Meteorological Modelling for Atmospheric Research and Policy Applications, Anthem Press, in press, 260 pp., 2017.
Sørensen, B.:New mass conserving multi-tracer efficient transport schemes focusing on semi-Lagrangian and Lagrangian methods for online integration with chemistry, Ph. D. thesis, University of Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Institute and Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2012.
Sørensen, B., Kaas, E., and Korsholm, U.S.: Amass-conserving and multi-tracer efficient transport scheme in the online integrated Enviro-HIRLAM model, Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1029–1042, doi:10.5194/gmd-6-1029-2013,2013.
Zilitinkevich,  S. and Baklanov, A.: Calculation Of The Height Of The Stable Boundary Layer In Practical Applications, Bound.-Layer Meteor., 105, 389–409, doi:10.1023/A:1020376832738, 2002.
Zilitinkevich, S., Baklanov, A., Rost, J., Smedman, A.-S., Lykosov, V., and Calanca, P.: Diagnostic and prognostic equations for the depth of the stably stratified Ekman boundary layer, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 128, 25–46, doi:10.1256/00359000260498770, 2002.

Enviro-HIRLAM model development history:
1999: Started at DMI as an unfunded initiative (A. Baklanov et al.)
2000: Used previous experience of the Novosibirsk scientific school (A. Baklanov) and SMHI (A. Ekman PhD)
2001: Online passive pollutant transport and deposition in HIRLAM-Tracer (J. Chenevez, A. Baklanov, J.H. Sørensen)
2003: Aerosol dynamics model developed and tested first as 0D module in offline CAC (A. Baklanov, A. Gross)
2004: Test of different formulations for advection of tracers incl. cloud water (K. Lindberg)
2005: Urbanisation of the model (funded by FP5 FUMAPEX) (A. Baklanov, A. Mahura, C. Peterson).
2005: COGCI grant for PhD study of aerosol feedbacks in Enviro-HIRLAM (U. Korsholm, supervised by A. Baklanov, E. Kaas)
2006: Test of CISL scheme in Enviro-HIRLAM (P. Lauritzen, K. Lindberg)
2007: First version of Enviro-HIRLAM for pollen studies (A. Mahura, U. Korsholm, A. Rasmussen, A. Baklanov)
2008: New economical chemical solver NWP-Chem (A. Gross)
2008: First version of Enviro-HIRLAM with indirect aerosol feedbacks (U. Korsholm PhD)
2008: Testing new advection schemes in Enviro-HIRLAM (UC: E. Kaas, A. Christensen, B. Sørensen, J.R. Nielsen)
2008: Decision to build HIRLAM Chemical Brunch (HCB) with Enviro-HIRLAM as baseline system, Enviro-HIRLAM becomes an international project
2008: 1st International Young Scientist Summer School (YSSS) on “Integrated Modelling of Meteorological and Chemical Transport Processes” (based on Enviro-HIRLAM) in St. Petersburg, Russia: http://netfam.fmi.fi/YSSS08/
2009: Integrated version of Enviro-HIRLAM based on reference version 7.2 and HCB start
2011: New chemistry (A. Zakey), direct and semi-direct aerosols effect (K.P. Nielsen) schemes
2011: 2nd International YSSS (based on Enviro-HIRLAM/HARMONIE) in Odessa, Ukraine: http://www.ysss.osenu.org.ua/
2012: New effective aerosol scheme for multi-compound aerosols (R. Nuterman)
2012: New mass conserving and monotonic semi-Lagrangian transport (B. Sørensen et al. 2013)
2013: New STRACO scheme with aerosol-clouds interaction (U. Korsholm and B. Sass)
2013: Model evaluation study within the AQMEII, phase 2 exercise (R. Nuterman)
2014: Moving to the HARMONIE platform and building a joint strategy with ALADIN community
2014: 3rd International YSSS (based on 5 online coupled models including Enviro-HIRLAM/HARMONIE) in Aveiro, Portugal: http://aveirosummerschool2014.web.ua.pt/
2014-2016: Enviro-HIRLAM birch pollen forecasting system (A. Kurganskiy et al.)
2015: New radiation scheme with aerosol direct and semi-direct effects for SW and LW radiation (K.P. Nielsen et al.)
2016: Application of Enviro-HIRLAM for China (Marco-Polo project, A. Mahura et al.)














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